دوره 8، شماره 4 - ( 4-1389 )                   جلد 8 شماره 4 صفحات 190-185 | برگشت به فهرست نسخه ها

XML English Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Akpantah A O, Ekong M B, Uruakpa K C, Akpaso M, Eluwa M A, Ekanem T B. Gonadal histo-morphologies and serum hormonal milieu in female rats treated with azadirachta indica leaf extract. IJRM 2010; 8 (4) :185-190
URL: http://ijrm.ir/article-1-189-fa.html
Gonadal histo-morphologies and serum hormonal milieu in female rats treated with azadirachta indica leaf extract. International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine 1389; 8 (4) :190-185

URL: http://ijrm.ir/article-1-189-fa.html

چکیده:   (2039 مشاهده)
Background: Azadirachta indica is a tree with most of the parts having various medicinal values. It is however popular because of its high potencies, as antimalarial and anti-fertility agents, which the locals still exploit.
Objective: We investigated the effect of the methanol leaf extract on the serum levels of the pituitary-gonad hormones and the histo-morphology of the ovary and uterus of adult female rats.
Materials and Methods: Eighteen adult female Wistar rats were divided into three groups (A, B and C) of six animals each. Group A was the control group that received distilled water orally, while groups B and C were the experimental groups that received 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of the extract respectively by oral intubation for fourteen days. The animals were sacrificed on the fifteenth day, and blood was collected from the left ventricles of the hearts and subsequently spurned in heparinized bottles for serum hormonal assay. The ovaries and the uteri were then dissected out and preserved in Bouin’s fluid. Routine haematoxylin and eosin method was used to stain them.
Results: There were significant (p<0.0001) lower serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the treatment groups, especially in the 400mg/kg group, while there were significant (p<0.0001) higher progesterone (PH) levels in the treatment groups. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were however not different (p=0.0502) from the control. The histo-morphologic studies revealed no obvious pathological changes in the ovaries and uteri of the treatment groups.
Conclusion: 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of methanol extract of the leaf of A. indica does not have any obvious effect on the histo-morphologies of the ovary and uterus, but showed significant changes in the serum levels of LH and PH of female Wistar rat, implying that the effect of the extract may have been at a level other than these organs of study.
نوع مطالعه: Original Article |

فهرست منابع
1. Koul O, Isman MB, Ketkar CM. Properties and uses of neem, Azadirachta indica. Can J Bot 1990; 68: 1-11. [DOI:10.1139/b90-001]
2. Subapriya R, Nagini S. Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review. Current Medicinal Chemistry-Anti-cancer Agents 2005; 5: 149-156. [DOI:10.2174/1568011053174828]
3. Jin P, Pan X, Zhao S. Toxicity and growth-regulating activity of a neem seed kernel extract (azal-s) to the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. Insect Sci 1995; 2: 64-69. [DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7917.1995.tb00024.x]
4. Boeke SJ, Boersma MG, Alink GM, van Loon JJ, van Huis A, Dicke M, et al. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides. J Ethnopharmacol 2004; 94: 25-41. [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2004.05.011]
5. dos Santos TM, Costa NP, Torres AL, Boica Junior AL. Effect of neem extract on the cotton aphid. Pesq Agropec Bras 2004; 39: 1071-1076. [DOI:10.1590/S0100-204X2004001100003]
6. Siddiqui BS, Rasheed M, Ilyas F, Gulzar T, Tariq RM, Naqvi SN. Analysis of insecticidal of Azadirachta indica. A. Juss fractions. Z Naturforsch C 2004; 59: 104-112. [DOI:10.1515/znc-2004-1-221]
7. Mahmoud MF, Shoeib MA. Sterilant and oviposition deterrent activity of neem formulation on Peach fruit fly Bactrocera Zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae). J Biopest 2008; 1: 177-181.
8. Talwar GP, Shah S, Murkherjee S, Chabra R. Induced termination of pregnancy by purified extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem): mechanisms involved. Am J Reprod Immunol 1997; 37: 485- 491. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0897.1997.tb00264.x]
9. Baswa M, Rath CC, Dash SK, Mishra RK. Antibacterial activity of Karanj (Pngamia pinnata) and neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil: a preliminary report. Microbios 2001; 105: 183-189.
10. Ebenso IE. Molluscidal effects of neem (Amadoracute indica) extracts on edible tropical land snails. Pest Manage Sci 2004; 60: 178-182. [DOI:10.1002/ps.810]
11. Raizada RB, Srivastava MK, Kaushal RA, Singh RP. Azadirachtin, a neem biopesticide: subchronic toxicity assessment in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2001; 39: 477-483. [DOI:10.1016/S0278-6915(00)00153-8]
12. Gupta PK. Pesticide exposure--Indian scene. Toxicol 2004; 198: 83-90. [DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2004.01.021]
13. Chattopadhyay RR. Possible biochemical mode of anti-inflammatory action of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1998; 36: 418-420.
14. Khosla P, Bhanwra S, Singh J, Seth S, Srivastava RK. A study of hypoglycaemic effects of Azadirachta indica (neem) in Normaland alloxan diabetic rabbits. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2000; 44: 69-74.
15. Murkherjee S, Garg S, Talwar GP. Early post implantation contraceptive effects of a purified fraction of neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds, given orally in rats: possible mechanisms involved. J Ethnopharmacol 1999; 67: 287-296. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00068-9]
16. Bandyopadhyay U, Biswas K, Chatterjee R, Bandyopadhyay D, Chattopadhyay I, Ganguly CK, et al. Gastroprotective effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark extract: possible involvement of H(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibition and scavenging of hydroxyl radical. Life Sci 2002; 71: 2845-2865. [DOI:10.1016/S0024-3205(02)02143-4]
17. Parshad O, Singh P, Gardner M, Fletcher C, Rickards E, Choo-Kang E. Effect of aqueous neem (Azadirachta indica) extract on testosterone and other blood constituents in male rats. A pilot study. West Indian Med J 1994; 43:71-74.
18. Ragi Y, Udoh US, Mewoyeka OO, Ononye FC, Bolarinwa AF. Implication of reproductive endocrine malfunction in male anti-fertility efficacy of Azadirachta indica extract in rats. Afr J Med Sci 2003; 32: 159-165.
19. Awasthy KS. Genotoxicity of a crude leaf extract of neem in male germ cells of mice. Cytobios 2001; 106: 151-164.
20. Garg S, Talwar GP, Upadhyay SN. Immunocontraceptive activity of guided fractionation and characterization of active constituents of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 1998; 60: 235-246. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00157-8]
21. Roop JK, Dhaliwal PK, Guraya SS. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats. Braz J Med Biol Res 2005; 38: 943-947. [DOI:10.1590/S0100-879X2005000600017]
22. Mishra RK, Singh SK. Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Azadirachta indica on the reproductive organs in male mice. Indian J Exp Biol 2005; 43: 1093-1103.
23. Young B, Heath JW. The endocrine glands. In Young B, Heath JW, eds. Wheater's functional histology: a text and colour atlas. Churchill Livingstone; 2004; 310-327.
24. Murray RK, Granner DK, Mayes PA, Rodwell VW. Harper's biochemistry. 25th Ed. London; Appleton and Lange; 2000.
25. Smith MS, Fox SR, Chatterton RT. Role of proestrous progesterone secretion in suppressing basal pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion during estrous of the estrous cycle. Neuroendocrin 1989; 50: 308-314. [DOI:10.1159/000125238]
26. Martinez-Alvarez LE, Hernandez-Ceron J, Gonzalez-Padilla E, Perera-Marín G, Valencia J. Serum Luteinizing hormone peak and ovulation following synchronized estrous in goats. Small Ruminant Res 2007; 69: 124-128. [DOI:10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.12.024]
27. Upadhyay SN, Kaushic C, Talwar GP. Antifertility effects of neem oil by single intrauterine administration: A novel method for contraception. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 1990; 242: 175-179. [DOI:10.1098/rspb.1990.0121]
28. Prakasha AO, Tewaria RK, Mathur R. Non-hormonal post - coital contraceptive action of neem oil in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1988; 23: 53-59. [DOI:10.1016/0378-8741(88)90114-6]
29. Smith MS, McDonald E. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone and progesterone during estrous cycle, pseudo pregnancy and pregnancy in the dog. Endocrin 1974; 94: 404-412. [DOI:10.1210/endo-94-2-404]
30. Guyton AC, Hall JE. Textbook of medical physiology. 10th Ed. Philadelphia; SW Saunders Company; 2001.
31. Gbotolorun SC, Oremosu AA, Noronha CC, Okanlawon OA. The effect of alcohol extract of neem seed on ovulation, estrous cycle, and the fertility of adult cyclic Sprague-Dawley rats. Nig J Health Biomed Sci 2004; 3: 116-119. [DOI:10.4314/njhbs.v3i2.11523]
32. Tewaria RK, Pathaka S, Prakash AO. Biochemical and histological studies of reproductive organs in cyclic and ovariectomized rats supporting a non-hormonal action for neem oil. J Ethnopharmacol 1989; 25: 281-293. [DOI:10.1016/0378-8741(89)90034-2]
33. Mandal R, Dhaliwal PK. Antifertility effect of Melia azedarach Linn (dharek) seed extract in female albino rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2007; 45: 853-860.

بازنشر اطلاعات
Creative Commons License این مقاله تحت شرایط Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License قابل بازنشر است.

کلیه حقوق این وب سایت متعلق به International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine می باشد.

طراحی و برنامه نویسی : یکتاوب افزار شرق

© 2023 CC BY-NC 4.0 | International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb