Volume 11, Issue 9 (12-2013)                   IJRM 2013, 11(9): 693-0 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

1- Histomorphometry and Stereology Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
2- Department of Anatomy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran , Ashraf.hassanpour@Yahoo.com
Abstract:   (4913 Views)
Background: Busulfan (Bus) is a chemotherapy drug that is widely used for cancer treatment. However, administration of busulfan may cause temporary or permanent sterility in male patients. Therefore, reduction of this side is necessary.
Objective: evaluation of the protective effects of L-carnitine and testis homogenized tissue (THT) on sperm parameters and the testis structure after busulfan treatment.
Materials and Methods: Twenty rats were divided four groups. Group I (Control) received a single dose of DMSO and 1mL of distilled water (I.P.). Group II (Bus) received a single of busulfan (10 mg/kg) plus 1 ml of the distilled water (I.P.). Group III (Bus+THT) received busulfan plus 1mL of THT daily by oral gavages. Group IV (Bus+L-car) received a single dose of busulfan plus 100 mg/kg/day L-carnitine (I.P.). After 48 dayst, the Stereological technique was used for the estimating volume and diameter of testis, seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissue, flagella length, germinal epithelium height and spermatoginic cell number. Semen analysis was used for the assessment of sperm parameters.
Results: THT increased volume of testis (6.5%), seminiferous tubule and interstitial tissue volume (6.5%, 6.9% and 11.7% respectively), germinal epithelium height (13%), sperm count (7.5%), and decreased sperm with abnormal morphology (1%) in comparison with the L-carnitine in busulfan treated group.
Conclusion: It seems the use of L-carnitine and THT decreases side effects of busulfan on the male reproductive system. However, in our study, THT is more effective than L-carnitine and leads to the recovery testis structure and sperm parameters after treatment with busulfan.
Full-Text [PDF 1169 kb]   (809 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (479 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Article |

1. Bishop JB, Wassom JS. Toxicological review of busulfan (Myleran). Mutat Res 1986; 168: 15-45. [DOI:10.1016/0165-1110(86)90020-5]
2. Bucci LR, Meistrich ML. Effects of busulfan on murine spermatogenesis: cytotoxicity, sterility, sperm abnormalities, and dominant lethal mutations. Mutat Res 1987; 176: 259-268. [DOI:10.1016/0027-5107(87)90057-1]
3. Howell SJ, Shalet SM. Testicular function following chemotherapy. Hum Reprod Update 2001; 7: 363-369. [DOI:10.1093/humupd/7.4.363]
4. Howell SJ, Radford JA, Ryder WD, Shalet SM. Testicular function after cytotoxic chemotherapy: evidence of Leydig cell insufficiency. J Clin Oncol 1999; 17: 1493-1498. 5. Meistrich ML. Male gonadal toxicity. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009; 53: 261-266. [DOI:10.1002/pbc.22004]
5. Meistrich ML. Male gonadal toxicity. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009; 53: 261-266. [DOI:10.1002/pbc.22004]
6. Mohammadghasemi F, Faghani M, Falah Karkan M. The protective effect of melatonin on sperm parameters, epididymis and seminal vesicle morphology in adult mouse treated with busulfan. J Iran Anat Sci 2010; 8: 25-36.
7. Perez-Crespo M, Pericuesta E, Perez-Cerezales S, Arenas MI, Lobo MV, Diaz-Gil JJ, et al. Effect of liver growth factor on both testicular regeneration and recovery of spermatogenesis in busulfan-treated mice. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2011; 9: 21. [DOI:10.1186/1477-7827-9-21]
8. Agarwal A, Said TM. Carnitines and male infertility. Reprod Biomed Online 2004; 8: 376-384. [DOI:10.1016/S1472-6483(10)60920-0]
9. Bremer J. Carnitine-metabolism and function. Physiol Res 1983; 63: 1420-1480. [DOI:10.1152/physrev.1983.63.4.1420]
10. Izgut-Uysal VN, Agac A, Derin N, Effect of L-carnitine on carrageenan-induced inflammation in aged rats. Gerontology 2003; 49: 287-292. [DOI:10.1159/000071709]
11. Ferrari R, Merli E, Cicchitelli G, Mele D, Fucili A, Ceconi C. Therapeutic effects of L-carnitine and ropionyl-L-carnitine on cardiovascular diseases: a review. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004; 1033: 79-91. [DOI:10.1196/annals.1320.007]
12. Onem G, Aral E, Enli Y, Oguz EO, Coskun E, Aybek H, et al. Neuroprotective effects of L-carnitine and vitamin E alone or in combination against. J Surg Res 2006; 131: 124-130. [DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2005.12.017]
13. Boerrigter ME, Franceschi C, Arrigoni-Martelli E, Wei JY, Vijg J. The effect of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine on the disappearance of DNA single-strand breaks in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Carsinogenesis 1993; 14: 2131-2136. [DOI:10.1093/carcin/14.10.2131]
14. Moretti S, Famularo G, Marcellini S, Boschini A, Santini G, Trinchieri V, et al. L-carnitine reduces lymhocyte apoptosis and oxidant stres in HIV-1-infected subjects treated with zidovudine and didanosine. Antioxid Redox Signal 2002; 4: 391-403. [DOI:10.1089/15230860260196191]
15. Khademi A, Safdarian L, Alleyassin A, Agha-Hosseini M, Akbari Hamed E, Saeidi Saeidabadi H, et al. The effect of L-carnitine on sperm parameters in patients candidated for Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection. Iran J Reprod Med 2004; 2: 65-69.
16. Grollman A, Williams JR, Harrison TR. Effects of renal extract on hypertension. Bull N Y Acad Med 1942; 18: 190-199.
17. Tanzer RC. The Effect of Testicle Extract on the Growth of Transplantable Mouse Tumors. J Exp Med 1932; 55: 455-463. [DOI:10.1084/jem.55.3.455]
18. De Rooij DG, Van Dissel-Emiliani FM, Van Pelt AM. Regulation of spermatogonial proliferation. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1989; 564: 140-153. [DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1989.tb25894.x]
19. Saki G, Rahim F, Alizadeh K. Effect of forced swimming stress on count, motility and fertilization capacity of the sperm in adult rats. J Hum Reprod Sci 2009; 2: 72-75. [DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.57226]
20. Elias H, Hyde DM. An elementary introduction to stereology (quantitative microscopy). Am J Anat 1980; 159: 412-446. [DOI:10.1002/aja.1001590407]
21. Seed J, Chapin RE, Clegg ED, Dostal LA, Foote RH, Hurtt ME, et al. Methods for assessing sperm motility, morphology, and counts in the rat, rabbit, and dog: a consensus report. ILSI Risk Science Institute Expert Working Group on Sperm Evaluation. Reprod Toxicol 1996; 10: 237-244. [DOI:10.1016/0890-6238(96)00028-7]
22. Anjamrooz SH, Movahedin M, Mowla SJ, Bairanvand SP. Assessment of morphological and functional changes in the mouse testis and epididymal sperms following busulfan treatment. Iran Biomed J 2007; 11: 15-22.
23. Zhengwei Y, McLachlan RI, Bremner WJ, Wreford NG. Quantitative (stereological) study of the normal spermatogenesis in the adult monkey (Macaca fascicularis). J Androl 1997; 18: 681-687.
24. Bar-Shira Maymon B, Yogev L, Marks A, Hauser R, Botchan A, Yavetz H. Sertoli cell inactivation by cytotoxic damage to the human testis after cancer chemotherapy. Fertil Steril 2004; 81: 1391-1394. [DOI:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2003.09.078]
25. Vecino P, Uranga JA, Arechaga J. Suppression of spermatogenesis for cell transplantation in adult mice. Protoplasma 2001; 217: 191-198. [DOI:10.1007/BF01283400]
26. Udagawa K, Ogawa T, Watanabe T, Yumura Y, Takeda M, Hosaka M. GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate, promotes regeneration of rat spermatogenesis after severe chemical damage. Int J Urol 2001; 8: 615-622. [DOI:10.1046/j.1442-2042.2001.00382.x]
27. Lenzi A, Sgro P, Salacone P, Paoli D, Gilio B, Lombardo F, et al. A placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial of the use of combined l-carnitine and l-acetyl-carnitine treatment in men with asthenozoospermia. Fertil Steril 2004; 81:1578-1584. [DOI:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2003.10.034]
28. Aliabadi E, Soleimani Mehranjani M, Borzoei Z, Talaei-Khozani T, Mirkhani H, Tabes H. Effects of L-carnitine and L-acetyl-carnitine on testicular sperm motility and chromatin quality. Iran J Reprod Med 2012; 10: 77-82.
29. Hochereau-de-Reviers MT, Viguier-Martinez MC, Perreau C. Effects of Supplementation with Impuberal or Adult Testicular Protein Extracts on Genital Tract and Testicular Histology as well as Hormonal Levels in Adult Busulfan Treated Rats. Andrologia 1982; 14: 297-305. [DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0272.1982.tb02264.x]
30. Irons MJ, Clermont Y. Spermatogonial chalone(s): effect on the phases of the cell cycle of type A spermatogonia in the rat. Cell Proliferation 1979; 12: 425-433. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2184.1979.tb00165.x]

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.